At the end of the VI cent. AD, the Slavs came to this region. During a war (791-796 AD) Charlemagne destroyed the Avar tribe alliance and the Frank state expanded its borders to Fruska Gora. The important changes in social and economic relations took place at the end of the IX cent., when the Hungarians came from the East persecuted by Pecsenegs. They inhabited most of the teritory of the nowadays Vojvodina, where they found the remains of Avars, Slavs and Franks.
In the period of great migrations, the habitats were built near the remains of the ancient cities. From this period, numerous objects made of glass, gold, silver, bronze and iron were preserved. They show the powerful influence of the Byzantine centres from the south of Balkans. On Avar materials is especially evident the proof of the symbiosis of the Medieval and old Byzantine artistic tradition. The most prominent sites from this periods are near Kovin, Pancevo, Vrbas, Novi Knezevac, Ada and Celarevo. At the turn of the IX and X century the culture of Belo Brdo had developed in these parts, mostly in Slavic population.
The founder of the Hungarian state, king Istvan I (997-1038), layed the fundaments of the feudal system, assisted by the German knights and the western christian world, and using the organization of the conquered Slavic population as well as other conquered populations. The centres of power were fortified cities, from wich the surrounding land and dependant population was reigned, opressed by heavy taxes. Backa, Banat and a part of Srem were also under government of Hungarian state. Srem changed governors' hands very often - for a short while it was also a part of Bulgarian state, and the city of Sirmium was held, for some time, by the emperor of Macedonia, Samuilo, whose empire spreaded over a great part of Balkans. Later, Sirmium fell into Byzantine hands.
Hungarian state was severely shaken when the dynasty of Luxenburg came to throne ending the reign of the dynasty of Anjou in 1387. Soon afterwards a new peril came into existance - the Turks, who sent their army to the North after the battle of Kosovo (1389), raided Srem and Banat. Only when the Serbian despot Stefan Lazarevic became dependant on the Hungarian king Zigmond, who, in return, gave Stefan Lazarevic the government of Belgrade and Macva, were Srem and Banat protected from the Turk raids for a short while by a belt which presented the Serbian protectorate.
The Turkish breakthrough on Balkans caused mass migrations of the Serbian population from Kosovo and from the region of the river Morava towards the teritory of nowadays Vojvodina. The migrations were especially populous after the Serbian protectorate fell under Turkish government in 1459. Hungarian king and nobility accepted the refugees and used them as southern border protectors and as landless peasants. Hungarian king Matyas took in the descendants of the last Serbian dynasty and even provided the title of the Serbian despot in order to attach the Serbian population to the Hungarian state. In that way the Serbian protectorate still existed, though without a teritory. To the Serbian nobility Hungarian king gave estates, while the Serbian peasents were in the same position as the Hungarian ones, therefore it is understandable that in 1514 Serbs joined the great rise of the Hungarian peasants against the feudal exploitation, led by Dozsa Gyorgy. The rise ended in bloodshed.
Serbs in Hungary remained devoted to their religion. They built a number of Serbian ortodox churches and monasteries (Sisatovac, Jazak, Hopovo, Krusedol, etc.), which became the centres of learning, copying and expansion of the Serbian literature. Last Serbian despot, Pavle Bakic, continued to bring Serbs from the Balkans, yet the migrations stopped when the Turks conquered and raided Vojvodina, after the Hungarian army had been defeated at the Mohacs field.
The Turks strengthened their power in Srem at the time of the first siege of Vienna, in 1529. They conquered Backa in 1542, and finally Banat in 1552. Mostly Serbs and Vlahs were colonized in Vojvodina by Turks, due to the military and economic reasons, since the most of the Hungarian population migrated further North. Under Turkish reign Vojvodina suffered serious damage, economically and culturally. The people were opressed by heavy taxes and evils. In 1594, in Banat, there was a rise because of that, but the rebells could not resist the strong Turkish powers, since the help came neither from Austrians nor from the nobility of Erdely.
After the Turks were defeated at Vienna in 1683, Austrians took initiative and broke into the Turkish territory all the way to Skopje. The Turks were driven out of Backa, western and central Srem. In the war of 1716-1718, after the Pozarevac peace agreement, the Turks lost Banat and eastern Srem, too. Austrian government took place of the Turkish government in Vojvodina.
Batle near Senta 1697.
The Turks reorganized their troops the drove the Austrians out of the Balkans. In the great migration of the 1690, caused by the Turkish retaliation on Serbian population "looking neiter for the write nor for the wrong, but all under the saber they sent", thousands of Serbs came to Vojvodina led by the patriarch Arsenije III Carnojevic. At the time the Serbs formed the majoritu of the population. Along with them in Backa and Srem lived Bunjevacs and Sokacs, and in Banat the Romanians.
The Austrian court guaranteed the Serbs freedom of confession, release of the feudal obligations and autonomy in matters concerning religion and people because the court needed them as protectors of the frontier. Against Turks, a defense system was built, conceived as a Military Frontier. There was the Moris frontier in northern Banat. In Backa, there was the Tisa frontier, along the Tisa river, and the Sava and the Danube frontier along these two rivers. As emperors frontier keepers Serbs and Bunjevacs, who were obliged to serve both as soldiers and border keepers, were released from feudal taxes, and they had a village self government, with national officers as governors.
The Military Frontier was thought of as of an "Austrian house's treasury", because the court could use the Frontier men as soldiers in wars against outer enemies, as well as an instrument of power in inside conflicts. The engagement of frontier men is illustrated by the fact that they participated in 13 wars from 1690 to 1802, that is they spent 90 years out of 112 fighting wars.<